By Eric SharpeIn today’s oil industry, water is everything as some 99.5% of all frac fluid is made up of fresh water. As the frac interfaces with the geology of the pay zone, that fresh water becomes contaminated mostly by naturally occurring salts and other chemicals in the shale. Added to the acids, stimulant chemicals and proppants that follow that water downhole, that 99.5% fresh becomes virtually un-recyclable, at least from a financial perspective. Purifying frac water, if it is even truly effective, is estimated to cost over $140k per million gallons according to a West Virginia University study done in 2015. If true, completion costs for a well would almost double if a total cleansing option were adopted. Regardless, whether actual true purification is possible is still in question.